لغت ترک ,واژه ترک ,محدوده واژه ترک

Bu girişe ilişkin açıklama: Bir kaç gün önce biz bu makale ve özellikle etnik Türkleri okumak için biraz zaman iletileri bir sürü aldı ve bu arada, İranlıların protesto edildi. Bu yazı "sol" değil "morfolojik izni" kökenleri ve kapsamı hakkında sadece ve unutmayın! Bu ne "Türk" değil, "sol", değil İran, İran ve Türk dilleri Altay dilleri bir dalı olduğu açıktır. (Daha sonra orijinal makaleye eklenmiştir katılımcı siteleri tarafından açıklanmıştır)

نشانی مقاله واژه ترک ,محدوده واژه ترک

Tarihçiler dikkatli yazmak için kelime ve kağıt yelpazesini terk etmeli. Anlamına Arap, Türk kelimesi bağlamında değil, etnik Asya nüfus Syayh yapar (Sözcük İran Avesta, ve daha sonra İslam dönemi, kelime yavaş yavaş etnik şeklini aldı Turan halkına aittir gibi).

Ben bu kaynağın Farsça çeviri, o da önemli olduğu için daha iki parça açıklamak umuyoruz (Kelimenin kök kelime çıkmak ve bölünmüş sınırları bırakın).

Diğer önemli nokta, yeni bir bilimin ilk harfi olduğunu ve antik kaynaklarda üstün.

çıkmak kelimenin kökü, ancak, belli değil, ama müzik yeni araştırma (Altay bilmiyor) Ve Birliğin asalet bağlıdır “Mavi Türkler” Ayrıca Ayraytbar (İskit) میدانند:

Altın, Peter B. “Türklerin Kökeni ve Türk Halkları Şekillenmesi Üzerine Bazı Düşünceler”. (2006) Içinde: Antik Dünyada İletişim ve Değişim. Ve. Victor H. Mair. Hawai'i Basın Üniversitesi.

pp 142-143

ethnonym “Turk” Benzer bağlantıları vardır. Çin formu, “T’u-chùeh” < ‘T’uat-kiwat reflectsTurkut,” the plural form, as we have noted. This plural in –t could be Altaic. It is common in Mongol, rare in OldTurkic, and usually found in titles taken from the Jou-jan (e.g., tegin, tegit) —who, it is believed, but not universally, were speakers of some Proto-Mongolian Ianguage (they contained Hsiun-pi [Proto-Mongolian] and Hsiung-nu elements; Janhunen [1996,190], however, recently asserted a possible Turkic affiliation). It might also be Soghdian or some other Iranian tongue. In the earliest inscription from the Tùrk empire, the Bugut Inscription, which is written in Soghdian, not Turkic, we find trwkt‘sy-ns’: Turkit / Turukit Ashinas (Mori-yasu and Ochir 1999,123). The Sui-shu tells us that the nameTûrkin their own tongue meanshelmetand that it comes from the fact that the Altay région, where we find the Tùrks at the time in which they form their empire, looks like a helmet. “The people call it a ‘helmet,’ t’u-chiïeh; therefore, they cail themselves by this name” (Liu 1958,1: 40). This is a folk etymology, and there is no attested Turkic form ofTùrkmeaninghelmet.As Rôna-Tas has pointed out, however, there is a Khotancse-Saka word, tturaka, mcaninglid” (1999,278 – 281). It is not a serious semantic stretch tohelmet.Subsequently, “Tùrkwould find a suirable Turkic etymology, being conflated with the word tùrk, which means one in the prime of youth, powerful, mighty” (Rona-Tas 1991,10-13).

It seems hard to avoid the conclusion that the Tùrks, per se, had strong connections with — if not ultimate origins in — Irano-Tocharian east Turkistan. They, or at least the Ashina, were migrants to southern Siberia-northern Mongolia, where we seem to find the major concentration of Turkic-speaking peoples. There are a considarable number of Tocharian and Iranian loan words in Old Turkic — although a good number of these may have been acquired, especially in the case of Soghdian terms, during the Tùrk impérial period, when the Soghdians were a subject people, an important mercantile-commercial element in the Tùrk state, and culture-bearers across Eurasia. It also should be noted here that the early Tùrk rulers bore names of non-Turkic origin. The founders of the state are Bumïn (d. 552) and his brother Ishtemi (552-575), the Yabghu Qaghan, who governed the western part of the realm. Among their successors are ‘Muqan/Mughan/Mahân/Muhân (553 – 572), Tas(t)par (572 -581), and Nivar/Nâbàr/Nawâr (581-587). None of thèse names is Turkic (Altın 1992,121 – 122; Rybatzki 2000.206-221).

Andras Rona-Tas, Macarlar ve erken Orta Çağda Avrupa: Erken Macar tarihinin bir giriş, Central European University Press, 1999,
PP 281:”Şöyle Şimdi etnik isim Türk'ün tarihini yeniden yapabilirsiniz. kelimesi Doğu İranlı olduğunu, muhtemelen Saka, köken, ve kimin lider klan Ashina fethetti bir iktidar kabilenin adıdır Türkler, Onları yeniden, ama kendisi hızla oldu Türkleşmiş”

Arap edebiyatında insanlar için sınırlı bir terim ve kullanımını bırakın:

M. A. Şaban ileri gider:Türkler "" Bu yeni birlikler sözde edildi ". It must be said without hesitation that this is the most misleading misnomer which has led some scholars to harp ad nauseam on utterly unfounded interpretation of the following era, during which they unreasonably ascribe all events to Turkish domination. In fact the great majority of these troops were not Turks. It has been frequently pointed out that Arabic sources use the term Turk in a very loose manner. The Hephthalites are referred to as Turks, so are the peoples of Gurgan, Khwarizm and Sistan. Indeed, with the exception of the Soghdians, Arabic sources refer to all peoples not subjects of the Sassanian empire as Turks. In Samarra separate quarters were provided for new recruits from every locality. The group from Farghana were called after their district, and the name continued in usage because it was easy to pronounce. But such groups as the Ishtakhanjiyya, the Isbijabbiya and groups from similar localities who were in small numbers at first, were lumped together under the general term Turks, because of the obvious difficulties the Arabs had in pronouncing such foreign names. The Khazars who also came from small localities which could not even be identified, as they were mostly nomads, were perhaps the only group that deserved to be called Turks on the ground of racial affinity. However, other groups from Transcaucasia were classed together with the Khazars under the general description.”

(M.A. Shaban, “Islamic History”, Cambridge University Press, v.2 1978. Page 63)

“The name Turk was given to all these troops, despite the inclusion amongst them of some elements of Iranian origin, Ferghana, Ushrusana, and Shash – places were in fact the centers were the slave material was collected together”(ʻUthmān Sayyid Aḥmad Ismāʻīl Bīlī, “Prelude to the Generals”, Published by Garnet & Ithaca Press, 2001.)

Note unlike what M.A. Shaban states, someone like Ibn Khaldun has stated the Soghdians as a “Turkish” group.

“In reference to the first two centuries of Islam, the term “Turk” as used by Arabic and Persian sources presents difficulties. The Muslim authors mean different things by the term, depending on their era, proximity to Inner Asia and knowledge of the region. It can overlap with other ethnic names (e.g. “Soghdian, Khazar, Farghanian”). (D. Pipes. Turks in Early Muslim Service — JTS, 1978, 2, 85—۹۶٫)

One Soghdian(Iranian) in particular who was mistaken for a Turk was the general Afshin. That is while two old Arabic sources mention Afshin as a Turk, it is clear to modern scholars he was a Soghdian and other sources have mentioned him as such.

Daniel Pipes states:”Although two classical sources claim him a Turk, he came from Farghana, an Iranian cultural region and was not usually considered Turkish”( D. Pipes. Turks in Early Muslim Service — JTS, 1978, 2, 85—۹۶٫)

Bernard Lewis also states: “Babak’s Iranianizing Rebellion in Azerbaijan gave occasion for sentiments at the capital to harden against men who were sympathetic to the more explicitly Iranian tradition. Victor (837) over Babak was al-Afshin, who was the hereditary Persian ruler of a district beyond the Oxus, but also a masterful general for the caliph.”( Bernard Lewis, “The Political Language of Islam”, Published by University of Chicago Press, 1991. Pg 482)

And J.H. Kramer states about Oshrusana:

“Under Mamun, the country had to be conquered again and a new expedition was necessary in 207/822. On this last occasion, the Muslim army was guided by Haydar (Khedar), the son of the Afshīn Kāwūs, who on account of dynastic troubles had sought refuge in Baghdād. This time the submission was complete; Kāwūs abdicated and Haydar succeeded him, later to become one of the great nobles of the court of Baghdād under al-Mutasim, where he was known as al-Afshīn. His dynasty continued to reign until 280/893 (coin of the last ruler Sayr b. Abdallāh of 279 [892] in the Hermitage in St. Petersburg); after this date, the country became a province of the Sāmānids and ceased to have an independent existence, while the Iranian element was eventually almost entirely replaced by the Turkic.”( J.H. KramersUsrūshana.Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007)

Thus modern scholars affirm Afshin was Iranian. However to Arab authors at the time, the term “Turk” did not specifically mean Altaic speakers as much as a person from the far away regions of Central Asia.

According C.E. Bosworth, “The Appearance of the Arabs in Central Asia under the Umayyads and the establishment of Islam”, in History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV: The Age of Achievement: AD 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century, Part One: The Historical, Social and Economic Setting, edited by M. S. Asimov and C. E. Bosworth. Multiple History Series. Paris: UNESCO Publishing, 1998. excerpt from page 23: “Central Asia in the early seventh century, was ethnically, still largely an Iranian land whose people used various Middle Iranian languages.

C. Edmund Bosworth: “In early Islamic times Persians tended to identify all the lands to the northeast of Khorasan and lying beyond the Oxus with the region of Turan, which in the Shahnama of Ferdowsi is regarded as the land allotted to Fereydun’s son Tur. The denizens of Turan were held to include the Turks, in the first four centuries of Islam essentially those nomadizing beyond the Jaxartes, and behind them the Chinese (see Kowalski; Minorsky, “Turan”). Turan thus became both an ethnic and a geographical term, but always containing ambiguities and contradictions, arising from the fact that all through Islamic times the lands immediately beyond the Oxus and along its lower reaches were the homes not of Turks but of Iranian peoples, such as the Sogdians and Khwarezmians.”( C.E. Bosworth, “Central Asia: The Islamic period up to the Mongols” in Encyclopedia Iranica).

Thus one should be careful in looking at Arabic sources that were written by authors far away from Central Asia. With regards to the language and culture of the region, the work of Biruni is clear and he differentiates clearly between Iranian(Chorasmians, Persians, Soghdians) and Turks. But the work of Arab authors and those from Western Iran are less careful

 

 

 

 

 

معنای واژه ترک

۶ پاسخ به لغت ترک ,واژه ترک ,محدوده واژه ترک

  • ayhan aylin says:

    همش دروغه. متاسفم برای شما.
    ترک جدا از فارسی بوده و خواهد ماند. ما را با نژاد افغانی یکی نکنید.

    • آرش says:

      بالاخره ما ایرانی ها (به قول شما فارسهای فاشیست و شوونیسم و چی چی ایسم افغانی!! ..) Eğer ibadet veya etnik Türkler olduğunu anladım !!! در ضمن ما را باکی نیست که با افغانی یا هر نژاد دیگری هم رده باشیم مهم فرهنگ و تاریخ و تمدن است .مهم راستگویی و اخلاق و ادبیات و شعر است .مهم دین و علم و ادب است که همه اینها در تاریخ ایران موج می زند و دیگران! غبطه می خورند. البته یادم رفت بگم که جدیدا دانشمندان نوظهور پانترک همه اینها که من گفتم را کلا تکذیب و تحریف و انکار و رد کردند به همین سادگی الخلاص!!! و جالب این که روش پیچیده و فرازمینی برای دفاع از خود پیدا کردند : با تفکر و منش نژادپرستی به مبارزه با نژاد پرستی و ریسیسم و فاشیست .. (البته به زعم خودشان)آمده اند!!!!!!!! Ve biz onun ağzına kendi manifestosu parmak çözme ve Lrzy korkusu dışında kalmak çünkü bu tonlar ve ırkçılık ve ayrımcılık sinirli Rysysm çığlıkları ise! من فقط متحیر هستم از این فرافکنی و پارادوکس های عظیم نژاد پرستانه که چطور تفکر نژادی پانترکیسم آن را با هم مخلوط و آماده خوراندن برای ذهن های بیمار میکند..

  • آرش says:

    Türkler, bir sigara için panikledim Türkiye Türkleri yiyordu kadar bir kaç yıl önce gitmiş olurdu hatırlıyorum .. Şimdi diğer halüsinasyonlar iyi bir ekonomik görünüm var terk edildi onların…اگر کشور ما از منابع طبیعی خودش استفاده خوب میکرد پیشرفته ترین کشور جهان میبود بعد می دیدید که چطور همین پانترکهای بوقلمون صفت رنگ عوض می کردند و سنگ ایرانیت را مثل کاسه داغ تر از آش به سینه می زدند ..البته همین رنگ عوض کردن ها نشانه بی هویتی و بی ریشه بودن است که باعث شده قبله اشان ترکیه و باکو و گهگاهی مغول و چین و ماچین!!! .. باشد!!(خلاصه سردگمی خنده داری دارند)اما خدا را شکر که ما ایرانیان در هر شرایط اقتصادی .سیاسی . فرهنگی …به ایرانی بودن خود افتخار میکنیم چون هویت ما ریشه های عمیق در ژرفای تاریخ دارد و قبله ما ایران ماست انقدر بی ریشه نیستیم که با خوب و یا بد شدن شرایط رنگ ایرانی بودنمان کم رنگ یا پررنگ شود!! در ضمن ایرانی بودن به فرهنگ و رسوم و آداب و اخلاق است اگر اینها را نداشت با داشتن شناسنامه ایرانی هم ایرانی نیست.

  • داریوش says:

    ایران، سرزمین آریاییان است و مردمان پیش از آریایی که با مهاجرین درآمیختند؛ ایرانیان امروز از اختلاط نژادی این دو هستند و تنها عناصر بیمار و نژادپرستی که هرگز ما با آنان یکی نبوده و نخواهیم بود؛ ترکان خون آشام آلت نرینه پرست و ع ر ب های هرزه گرد الله پرست است؛
    ایرانی، یعنی مادها (آذریان و کردها)، پارتیان (تاجیک ها، مردمان آریانا در بلخ و خجند ویا همان خراسان بزرگ) و پارس هــــا (آنان که از سوی مادر مادی و از سوی پدر پارسی هستند؛ یعنی کوروش بزرگ؛ خار چشم پان ترکان فاشیست)؛

    İranlılar, 21 Farsça tarih Azar 1325 yenilgi senin köpek yavrusu sömürge İran üzerinden Sığır rep Grdysh kir Tanrı'nın tüm Dismenoreli Mekke, Al i Mükerreme'de ve Medine Şeyh Khaz'al Tanrı Swallow Okul Önbelleği efendilerini verdi, biz, molla ve El-İslam'ın lideri .

    پس، پاینده ایران بزرگ

  • رضا says:

    کل فارسها ۶۵ میلیون و ترکها نزدیک ۲۵۰ میلیون . مگه یک جز بزرگ میتواند جز یک گروه کوچک باشد؟ مزاح میفرمایید ان شاءالله

    • yönetim says:

      هیچکس نگفته ترکها بخشی از مردم ایران هستند شما این مطلب را نخواندید در مورد آمار هم شما بیشتر مزاح می فرمایید

      جمعیت فارسی زبان جهان در حدود هشتاد و یک میلیون نفر است

      در کادر سمت راست این صفحه جمعیت پارسی زبانان آمده و بر روی هر بخش فشار دهید در پایین صفحه منبع آمار نوشته ذکر شده

      en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persian_people

      جمعیت مردم ایرانی یا ایرانی تبار در حدود صد و شصت میلیون نفر است

      en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iranian_peoples

      جمعیت تمام مردم ترک زبان جهان هم مجموعا در همین حدود است

      en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkic_peoples

      مجموع آذربایجانیهای ایران هم فقط شانزده درصد جمعیت ایران هستند

      cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html

      Ethnic groups:

      Persian 61%, Azeri 16%, Kurd 10%, Lur 6%, Baloch 2%, Arab 2%, Turkmen and Turkic tribes 2%, other 1% (2008 est.)