Azeri

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زبان آذری در ایرانیکا

The Great Islamic Encyclopedia Azeri

Authors: Darius Clip

"Azeri" is the name of an Iranian language that was spoken in Azerbaijan before the spread of the current Turkish language.. Speaking the "Azeri" language in Azerbaijan during the first Islamic centuries, as well as its "Iranian" language, have been stated and confirmed in numerous sources of the same period. (Yarshater, 1989, p. 238). Now, everyone is a co-conspirator, and in fact, there is no serious doubt that before the arrival of the Turks, the people of Azerbaijan and Zanjan, like the people of other regions of Iran, used to speak one of the Iranian languages. (Henning, p 6-315).
Although today in the land of Azerbaijan, not the ancient Iranian language "Azeri" is spoken, but a language of the Altaic branch which is a combination of Persian, Turkish and Arabic elements, but a lot of historical and linguistic documents, works and evidences, The existence and originality of the Iranian language "Azeri" in this region before the spread and dominance of the current "Turkish" language are evident.:
The oldest source that mentions "Azeri" as one of the "Iranian" languages ​​is "Ibn Muqafa" (killed in: 142S) It is said by him in the book "Fahrest" by Ibn Nadim (PS 22) Quoted. According to Ibn Muqafa, the language of Azerbaijan is "Pahlavi" (الفهلوية) It is attributed to Pele (Vhlh)That is, a land that includes Ray, Isfahan, Hamadan, Mahnahavand and Azerbaijan. "Hamze Esfahani" said the same thing. (Cited in: Yaqut Hamwi, vol. 3, p. 925) and Kharazmi (PS 112) have also quoted. After him, "Masoudi" dated the beginning of the 4th century AD. In his book (PS 8-67) After mentioning the name of Balad Iran (Such as: Azerbaijan, Ray, Tabaristan, Gorgan, Herat, Merv, Sistan, Kerman, Fars, Ahvaz and...) says that: «همه‌ي اين بلاد، كشوري واحد بودند و پادشاه و زباني واحد داشتند جز اين كه در برخي واژگان تفاوت‌هاي داشتند … مانند پهلوي و دري و آذري و ديگر زبان‌هاي فارسي».

"Abu Ishaq Ebrahim Istakhari" a geographer of the 4th century AD. In his article (PS 2-191), clearly the language of the people of Azerbaijan is "Persian" (Persian) Reads. «Ibn Hawqal» (Late 4th century A.H.) He also repeated the same words and clearly writes that: "The language of the people of Azerbaijan and most of Armenia is Persian" (PS 97). "Abu Abdullah Moghdisi", a writer of the late 4th century A.H., divides the land of Iran into eight climates.: "The language of the people of these eight climates is Iranian (Ajamiya) Is; Except that some are easy and some are complicated (Mac) and all of them are called Farsi" (PS 259). He adds that "Azerbaijan Persian is similar to Khorasan Persian in letters." (PS 378).
At the beginning of the 7th century A.H. “Hamawi Ruby” Minnoised: "The people of Azerbaijan have a language that “آذري” (Azeri) They call it and it is not understandable for others. (Volume 1/ p. 128). "Hamadullah Mostofi" dated the beginning of the 8th century A.H. He writes about the language of "Maragheh" people: "Their language is Pahlavi" (PS 100); And he says "Zanjan" about the language of the people: "Their tongue is on the right side (= complete) Is " (PS 67); And about the language of the "Ghstasafi" people. (Province between Ardabil and Baku) He states that: "Their Pahlavi language is closed to Jilani" (PS 107).
In the twelfth century A.H. "Olayi Chalabi", the Ottoman traveler, writes about the people of Tabriz: "Its teachers speak Persian," he says about Maragheh: "Most Maragheh women talk in Pahlavi" (Riyahi Khoei, p 4-33).
From the collection of these documents and historical evidences, it is clear that the people of Azerbaijan, until the expansion and full dominance of the current Turkish language in the Safavid era, spoke one of the Iranian languages, sometimes called "Pahlavi" and sometimes "Azeri" and with the language of the people of Ray and Hamedan and Isfahan have been continuous and related, they have spoken. As you can see, in none of the historical documents and sources of this period, the language of the people of Azerbaijan is not considered "Turkish"..
The gradual process of "Azerbaijan" becoming Turkic. – And next to it, Eran and Anatoly – From the Seljuk era (The fifth century)with the purposeful settlement of Turkmen desert tribes in these areas, in order to fight with the so-called infidels (Armenia, Georgia, Byzantium) It started (Ziryab, p. 205; Bassworth, 1366, pp. 9-48, 97, 105, 196; Bosworth, 1989, p. 228) And at this time, for the first time, the Turkish language reached the ears of the Pahlavi natives of Azerbaijan. During the period of the Mongols, most of their soldiers were of Turkish origin and made Azerbaijan their throne, Eilat and Turkmen soldiers – Many Mongols settled in Azerbaijan and owned many estates in this land (Petrushevsky, pp. 462, 491; Bassworth, 1366, p. 194; Bosworth, 1989, p. 229؛ Yarshater, 1989, p. 239). With the rule and direct influence of the Turkmens "Agh Quyunlu" (874-780 Q.) and "Qara Quyunlu" (908-874 Q.) In Azerbaijan, the governmental support of the Turkish language and the need of the people to contact Turkish-speaking government officials caused the spread of the Turkish language and the gradual retreat of the Iranian-Azeri language. (Riyahi Khoei, p. 33; Big Islamic Encyclopaedia, Vol. 1, p. 261; Yarshater, 1989, p. 239-240). In the Safavid era, due to the abundance of Turkic-speaking and Shia supporters of the Safavid dynasty. – that the Safavid kings had attracted them from eastern Anatolia and northern Syria to Azerbaijan for their support. – Most of the political, government and military work was done in Turkish and people had to learn the Turkish language, and therefore, the Azeri language gradually gave way to the language of the rulers until the end of the 11th century A.D., Turkish was used in all The big cities of Azerbaijan became common and dominant (Kareng, p. 26; Faqih, pp. 187-190; Big Islamic Encyclopedia, Vol. 1, p. 261; Yarshater, 1354, p 63). But with the decades-long occupation of a major part of Azerbaijan by the Ottoman Turkish invaders during the reign of Shah Ismail. (930-907 S) and Shah Tahmasab (984-930 S) It was during the Safavid era that the definitive transformation of the Azeri language into Turkish was achieved (Riyahi Khoei, pp. 33-35; Kareng, p 26). However, the Iranian-Azeri language did not completely leave Azerbaijan and until today, it is still spoken in some regions. (We will discuss this issue further).
In addition to the historical documents and evidences that indicate the existence and authenticity of the Iranian language "Azeri", many linguistic works of the Azeri language have survived and are available.. These works include written examples (Poetry and prose) and oral samples (Surviving dialects of the Azeri language) Is. A number of identified and surviving written examples of the Azeri language are in this way (For information about the complete list of these works, see: Big Islamic Encyclopedia, Volume 1, p 1-260):
1- A glimpse of "Hammam Tabrizi" (714-636 Q.) In Persian and Azeri:
I went to see you drunk // Kwam and Azer Dilli Kuya Betty Mast // My heart went away and I know that Roji // Be happy with your love // To the water of a well-spoken life // Want Loud Game and Kian Best // Be kind to your lover // Kzi sr mehrwarzi kst and ni kst // I am dying for your love // I didn't know what was going on when I was there // Let me be a cloud and a worm // I am in love with the roof of hell (Faqih, p. 196; Insafpur, p 2-71).
2- A sonnet of "Hammam Tabrizi" with this information: "It was a dream and a dream, my friends // The moonlit night and the spring season" whose last verse is in Azeri language: “And har wa wa wal wa dim yar khush bi // Oh my friends, don't beat me up." (Kareng, p 13).
3- A couplet by "Yaqub Ardabili" in Haft Aqlim ticket (Authored in 1002-996 Q.) Quoted:
“I sprayed it, but I didn’t like it // You have thousands of blood on your hands // Look in the mirror to see // If I see my life, I will see you." (Kareng, p 13); Means: take your hands! You make flowers with your hands (bubble) Bleed thousands. Look in the mirror to see yourself, to see how you will live? (Faqih, p 195).
4- Eleven two verses by "Sheikh Safi Ardabili" (Ancestor of the Safavid kings) This is in the book “Safwat al-Safa” by Ibn Bazzaz (Authored in 760 Q.) And the Safavid genealogy series of Sheikh Hussein was narrated from the descendants of Sheikh Zahid Gilani and the contemporary of Shah Suleiman Safavid. Including:
"Let's line up, line up, line up // We do not run to the heart of Germ // No one has brought the path of Baviyan into being // Because you are not my friend, the soil of my feet"; "Deler Kohi saw his head, not Burr." // Ishkar joyi ke and rayyan best ne por // Halmar Bagh Shariat Mande Ziran // The spirit of the game has flown, not bored. (Kaseravi, p 43 And 46).
5- Poems by "Mahan Kashafi" from the Ardabili noblemen, the contemporary of Sheikh Sadruddin, the son of Sheikh Safi; Including:
"The eyes of the grass are our slave's heart // We have eaten the blood of our hearts // Unless blood is spilled into every milk // who has become accustomed to our bloodsuckers" (Kaseravi, p 57).
6- Poems by "Ma'ali" who was probably a contemporary of Kashfi; As:
"Anoy, the lamentation of grief and sadness." // That is as much as pure gold // Let's burn paranoia together // Now Sote Dalan, Sote Zani's heart is burning" (Kaseravi, p 59).
7- A sentence from the Tabrizian language in Hamdullah Mustofi's "Nuzhat al-Qulob". (740 Q.): "Combat (= Tabrizians) If they find the owner of Hosni wearing abusive clothes, they say “Khloukhi grape without any door, the door of Soh Andrin”; It means creative grapes (= Grapefruit) is torn in the basket" (PS 98).
8- Three sentences from "Sheikh Safi" in Ibn Bazaz's Safwa al-Safai: "The work remains, the work is finished" (= O house of Abadan, the work was done); "Go Harifar Zate" (= Just speak, your opponent has arrived); "Shruh Marzdan to his own border" (Kasravi, pp. 7-36; Rezazadeh Malek, p- eleven).
9- A sentence from a mystical woman named "Mama Esmat Asbesti" who was around 760 – 820 S. He was living in Tabriz, addressed to Barzegari who had disrespected him: "We like Chekistan" (= You suddenly died, don't you like me?) (Faqih, p. 194; Caring, p. 14; Rezazadeh Malek, P. Yazdeh).
10- A sentence from Pir Hasan Zahtab Tabrizi addressed to Iskander Qaragoyunlu: “Iskander! My path is narrow, your path is wide. (= Iskander! You killed my child [God] kill your child) (Riyahi Khoei, p 31).
In addition to these surviving examples of verse and prose from the Azeri language, there are many words from this language in the old dictionaries.. In these texts, words belonging to the Azeri language with phrases like: "They say it in the province of Azerbaijan" or "They say it in the language of Azerbaijan/Azerbaijani". These words are generally and obviously "Iranian" and no lexicographer has considered or read these Azerbaijani words as belonging to the Turkish language.. Interestingly, in a dictionary called "Global Culture" (11th century A.H.) It has been written that a clear distinction has been made between the language of the people of Azerbaijan and the Turkish language: "Azhkh (= wart): in turkish “big” And in the language of Tabriz “Skill” they say (Kia, p 15). In the following, some examples of these Azeri words are mentioned:
Chiraglah = nightshade (Kia, p 11); Deterioration = finger (Ibid., p 14); Ziwal = Dew (There); Sudan = Saar (Ibid., p 16); Pig = loach (There); Shaft = rough (Ibid., p 17); Sham = shoe (Ibid., p 18); Neg / tag = palate (the same 18 And 30); Kalahdivan = mushroom (Ibid., p 21); Artichoke = owl (Ibid., p 3-22); Meshkinper = bat (Ibid., p 24); Mele = bed bug (There); Anin = spear (Ibid., p. 29); Tite = pupil (Ibid., p 31); Borz = height (Ibid., p 39); Kriwa = obstacle (There); Sohrab = Sorhab (Ibid., p 40).
Another group of surviving examples of the Azeri language is the oral or dialectal works of this language. Despite the increasing weakening of the Iranian language in Azerbaijan since the Mongol conquest and the influence and domination of the Turkic-speaking tribes over Azerbaijan in the Turkmen era. – Safavi, the dialects of this language did not disappear completely, but it is still spoken in different parts of Azerbaijan and its surrounding areas.. These dialects are from north to south:
1- Keringan from the village of Dizmar Khavari, Warzghan district of Ahar city; 2- Kalasor and Khoinerud from the villages of Kalibar section of Ahar city; 3- Glin Qiyeh from Harzand village in Zenouz district of Marand city; 4- Anbaran from Namin district of Ardabil city; 5- Most of the villages of Shahroud Khalkhal sector; 6- A number of villages in Upper Tarem; 7- the villages around Ramand and southwest of Qazvin; 8- Talash from Allahbakhsh Mohalla and Shandarmin in the south, to the former Soviet Talash in the north, which are basically closed to the Tati languages ​​of Azerbaijan. (Big Islamic Encyclopedia, Vol. 1, pp. 261-2; Yarshater, 1354, p. 64; Yarshater, 1989, p. 241).
Now, among the surviving dialects of the Azeri language, let's examine the "Harzani" dialect. (Harzani) We pay. "Harzen" or "Harzand" is a village located in the north of Marand city, where its people speak a dialect of the Azeri language. (look at: Carang):
1- Some examples of junk dialect vocabulary:
Ov = water; Otash = fire; Arzi = desire; Vor = wind; Huya = game; Raz = garden; Parbe = high; Vohor = snow; Proz = autumn; Parari = down (to Avesta: On it); Zora = boy; Chohor = forehead; Toye = fresh; Zami = place, land (to Avesta: Zam); Joro = separated; Yet = pair; Chol = well; Kosh = eye; Kar = house; Khuyo = God; Hov = sister; Vun = blood; Kina = girl (to Avesta: Knya); Daya = pain; Rost = true; Sor = year; Vede = short; Aharu = hungry; Mert = man; Yan = female; Boror = brother; Yeng = leg.
2- Some examples of sources in Hazani dialect:
Ote = to say; Vinde = to see; Zunusta = knowing (to Avesta: -I will); Horde = eat; Shere = to go; Amare = to come; Oshire = to hear; Sisde = to break.
3- Detached active pronouns in the Harzani dialect:
Man = me; Te = you; A = him; Ama = us; Shema = you; Avoy = him.
4- Connected personal pronouns in Hazani dialect:
em = – м; is = – T; e= – sh; mun= – Mann; lun = – Of your; I = – Sean.
5- Numbers:
I = يك؛ De = دو؛ Here = سه؛ Cho = چهار؛ Pinj = پنج؛ Shosh = شش؛ Hoft = هفت؛ Hasht = هشت؛ Nov = نه؛ Doh = ده؛ Sa\ Soyr = صد؛ Hazo = هزار
6- Conjugation of verbs (Absolute past):
Man-vin-ma = I saw; Te-vin-la = you saw; A-vin-ja = he saw; Ama-vin-muna = we saw; Shema-vin-luna = you saw; Avoy-vin-juna = they saw
7- A few sentences in slang:
Ashte Numirch Chiya = What is your name?
Kante Izi = Where are you from?
Haler Naniya = How are you?

Conclusion:
The very clear and precise statement and emphasis of various historical and geographical texts of the Islamic era that the language of the people of Azerbaijan is "Iranian" and the existence of such examples and works of this language, both in written and oral form, clearly reveals that the native language and The origin of the land of Azerbaijan until the popularization of the current Turkish language during the Turkmen era – Safavi is one of the "Iranian" languages ​​known by names such as "Azeri" and "Pahlavi".. On the other hand, there are no documents or sources that show that the language of the people of Azerbaijan was Turkish in the ages before the Turkmen era. – Safavi points out. در ميان نويسندگان و سرايندگان آذربايجاني پيش از اين دوره نيز هيچ اثري به زبان تركي خلق نشده و هيچ نشانه و نمونه و ردپايي از اين زبان بر سنگ و گل و چوب و كاغذ و فلز، تا بدان عصر و از اين ناحيه به دست نيامده است.

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Kitabname:
– Caring, Abdul Ali: "Tati and Harzni, two dialects of the ancient language of Azerbaijan", Tabriz, 1333
– Insafpour, Gholamreza: "History of origin and language of Azerbaijan", Fekr Rooz publications, 1377
– Masoudi, Ali bin Hussein: Al-Tanbih wa’l-Ishraf, corrected by Abdullah Ismail al-Sawy, Cairo. 1357 S.
– Mostofi, Hamdallah: "Nuzha al-Qulob", by the efforts of Mohammad Dabirsiaghi, Tahouri Publications. 1336
– Faqih, Jamaluddin: "Atorpatkan and Literary Movement", Iran Book Printing and Publishing Company
– Basworth, K. A. 1366: "Political and dynastic history of Iran", The Cambridge History of Iran, the fifth volume, the collector: C. ا. Boyle, translated by Hassan Anoushe, Amir Kabir Publications
– Bosworth, C. E., 1989 “Azerbaijan IV. Islamic History to 1941”: Encyclopaedia Iranica, flight. 3, London & NewYork
– "The Great Islamic Encyclopaedia", under the supervision of Kazem Mousavi Bojnarudi, volume one, 1369
– Kaseravi, Ahmed: "Azeri or the ancient language of Azerbaijan", Jar Publications, 2535
– Ibn Nadeem, Muhammad bin Ishaq: "Fahrest", translated by Reza Todjed, Ibn Sina Publications, 1346
– Istakhari, Abu Ishaq Ibrahim: “Traits and Kingdoms”, Leiden, 1927
– Kharazmi, Mohammad bin Ahmad: "Mufatih al-Uloom", translated by Hossein Khadiojam, Scientific and Cultural Publications, 1362
– Maqdisi, Muhammad bin Ahmed: “Best Sharing”, Leiden, 1906
– Yaqut Hamavi, Abu Abdullah: “Dictionary of Countries”, Beirut, published by: 1374 S.
– Riahi Khoei, Mohammad Amin, "Notes on the ancient language of Azerbaijan": Political information – economic, Number Of 182-181
– Rezazadeh Malek, Rahim: "Azeri Dialect", Publications of Ancient Iranian Culture Association, 1352
– Henning, and. B., "The Ancient Language of Azerbaijan": Hunted shadows, Bahman Sarkarati, Nash Ghat, 1378
– Petroshevsky, Y. P., "Social conditions – Iran's Economy in the Ilkhanate Period": The Cambridge History of Iran, the fifth volume, the collector: C. ا. Boyle, translated by Hassan Anousheh, Amir Kabir Publications. 1366
– Yarshater, Ehsan, 1354, "Azeri": Encyclopedia of Iran and IslamVolume 1, book translation and publishing company
– Yarshater, E., 1989 “Azerbaijan VII. The Iranian Language of Azerbaijan”: Encyclopaedia Iranica, flight. 3, London & NewYork
– Ibn Hoqal, Abul Qasim: "Surat al-Arz or Ibn Hawqal's travelogue", translated and explained by Dr. Jafar Shaar, Amir Kabir Publications. 1366
– Kia, Sadiq: "Azeris; Information about Azari dialect", Tehran, 1354

4 Reply to Azeri

  • Mehdi says:

    hello
    I myself am an Azeri
    As for why not everyone left Iran according to the text of the article, I think you answered your own question by saying and bringing up the Turkish-speaking villages all over Iran.
    which is mentioned in the man with many documents and documents in different places, which originates from the same reason raised in the article
    But my question to you who wrote in the answer is this :
    مگر نه اینکه نام شهر ها از تاریخی ترین وقدیمی ترین الفاظ منسوب می باشد ؟ این نامها را که من و شما روی آنها نگذاشته ایم صدها بلکه هزاران سال است که این شهرها با همین نامها بلکه با تغییری اندک خوانده می شوند و این نامها را اقوام اولیه ساکن در آن شهر با وجه تسمیه های مورد نظر خودشان گذاشته اند ؟ حالا سوال من این است آن دسته از دوستانی که اعتقاد دارند آذربایجان از ابتدای تاریخ ترک زبان بوده بگویید چرا در آذر بایجان حتی یک شهر بزرگ و محل تاریخی را نمیابیم که نام ترکی داشته باشد همانجور که مثلا در ترکمنستان و قزاقستان میبینیم؟
    Why are our cities Tabriz, the middle of the mirage, Mako Esco, Miandoab, Baku, Shusha (Glass)Shirvan Moghan Parsabad Ganja and… Are these the ones that are Persian?
    Why even in Türkiye itself the name of many cities (Of course, not those that have changed to Istanbul like Constantinople) Isn't it Turkish?
    Because my brother was not a Turk there until a thousand years ago, and Iran's western neighbor was the Eastern Roman Empire, which we have read in the history, don't tell God that the Romans were also Turks.
    Can we ignore the population of 20 million Kurds in Turkey who are the main residents of those areas?
    Another question that I would really like to know the answer to is why, for example, Nizami Ganjavi, who is from Ganja, Azerbaijan, does not have a Turkish poetry library.
    Don't defend the Turks too much. As Azeri, we have so much cultural and historical background that the Turks should attach themselves to us, not us.
    Finally, one more point that is completely digestible and understandable :
    Except that music is one of the oldest cultural works of any nation, especially Azeri music, which hardly anyone can find who does not recognize its richness and beauty.
    Turks were able to change our language but not the names of our instruments! Because he had never seen anything like this before. It is for this reason that we still say that the Azeri musician with a Turkish accent says three times Chargah Shur Dashti.
    So let's be proud of being Azeri, being Turkish is not an honor for us
    In the end, let me also say that the Turkish language is a very beautiful and strong language, and in my opinion, it is so strong in expressing moods and verbs that it is one of the sweetest languages ​​in the world. I am proud to be able to speak this beautiful language. But I will never sell my origins to the Turks

  • assad agha says:

    Why do you show sensitivity to these pan-Turkish movements, which are the center of their movement in Turkey with this mixed human culture. In Europe, they laugh at these movements and they have been looking at it with a smile for a long time. حقایق تاریخی امروزه بر اساس آرای بیشترین دانشمندان مورخ و متخصص بررسی میشوند که خوشبختانه از کشورها و ملت های مختلف هستند. خو شبختانه این فقط ترکهای دست راستی ترکیه نیستند. ما هم بیشترین دانشها را در باره تاریخ باستان ایران از همین مورخین داریم. تا حالا یک سند راجع به ترکان ار مورخین یونان باستان دیده اید؟

  • Darius Clip says:

    دوست گرامی متاسفانه در هیچ کجای این صفحه تصریح نشده است که نویسنده مقاله داریوش احمدی است.

    • admin says:

      حق با شما است
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